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Flows in the River Murray system

Flows in the River Murray System vary widely depending on a range of factors, including rainfall, inflows, evaporation, and demand for water for human use.

At any given time, water flowing through the river is destined for various uses, including irrigation, industry, communities, the environment, and meeting South Australia’s flow entitlement. The exact mix of these flow components is determined by demand and water availability, amongst other factors.

The graphic below is indicative of how water flow is managed throughout the seasons across a typical year.

Seasonal flow in the River Murray System, highlighting that water for environment flows are lower in summer-autumn, and higher in winter-spring.

  • River operations focus on managing dam storage levels and river system for the following water year
  • River flows are relatively stable
  • Medium demand for consumptive use (irrigation, industry, communities)
  • Water for the environment flows are low
  • Dam storage levels decline
  • River operations focus on capturing inflows from tributaries and meeting early season demand*
  • River flows are highly variable
  • Lowest demand for consumptive water (irrigation, industry, communities)
  • Water for the environment flows increase
  • Dam storage levels increase
  • River operations aim to capture water inflows and manage dam storage levels for summer demand*
  • Increasing demand for consumptive water (irrigation, industry, communities)
  • River flows are highly variable
  • Water for the environment flows are highest
  • Dam storage levels increase due to higher inflows
  • River operations focus on managing water supply to meet large system demand*
  • River flows are relatively stable
  • Highest demand for consumptive water (irrigation, industry, communities)
  • Water for the environment flows decrease
  • Dam storage levels decline

* including meeting South Australia's flow entitlement.

Water for the environment

Overall, water for the environment is a small percentage of the total water used in the Murray–Darling Basin.

The volume of water for the environment used under water entitlements has increased slightly over the past five years, as more water became available. The average use over this period was 20.4 % of the total water used in the Basin.

Importantly, water held for the environment uses the same entitlement framework as consumptive users. In any given year the amount of water available for delivery to key environmental sites is determined based on the same rules that apply to all other consumptive water uses.

Types of water for the environment

Water for the environment can be categorised as:

  • 'Planned' environmental water – water that flows through the river system that is typically managed through rules outlined in state water resource plans and is used to improve the health of the environment.
  • 'Held' environmental water – is water that is held by government agencies and is delivered where and when it is needed in the river system. It is water that is allocated to relevant government agencies through water licenses for environmental use.

Pie chart showing percentages of water managed by the Commonwealth Environmental Water Holder at 66%, Jointly held at 23%, Victoria at 5%, New South Wales at 4% and South Australia at 2%

Flows in the River Murray system

Flows in the River Murray for May 2022 - description provided below.

Information in the figure above is for the month of May 2022 and may not include recent rainfall or delivery of water for the environment in the River Murray system. Information in this figure is an average estimate over the past month and formal accounts from Basin state governments may vary. Water for the environment in the figure above represents water that is held by environmental water holders, through entitlements. Other water that flows through the river can also achieve environmental outcomes.

River flow information

The May flow to South Australia comprised of water for South Australia’s entitlement, unregulated flow, traded volumes and water for the environment. Water for the environment consisted of water delivered from the Goulburn, Broken, Campaspe, and Loddon rivers. In addition, water for the environment was delivered from Lake Victoria (near the South Australian border) across spring-autumn for environmental outcomes in the lower River Murray.

For the latest information on water for the environment, see the River Murray weekly report.

Intended environmental outcomes

Water for the environment takes time to move through the system. Water from past watering events is still moving through the River Murray as return flows. Environmental water holders can also use water for the environment by extracting allocations directly from the river. These allocations are often used for small-scale watering events rather than having water delivered from a storage.


Return flows used

Intended environmental outcomes

River Murray delivery n/a
  • support elevated winter baseflows
  • provide additional habitat and food sources for large bodied native fish
Millewa Forest n/a
  • provide flows through Gulpa Creek
  • support Australasian bitterns and large bodied native fish

Edward/Kolety-Wakool River system

  • support native fish breeding and recruitment
  • support water quality

Lower Broken Creek


  • protect and increase native fish populations and avoid excessive build-up of azolla fern

Goulburn River


  • cue native fish to move, increasing their dispersal and abundance
  • support native bank vegetation

Campaspe River


  • provide habitat to help protect and boost native fish
  • maintain resident platypus numbers and water quality
Loddon River n/a
  • maintain an adequate depth in pools for aquatic plants
  • provide habitat for fish, waterbug and rakali (water rats)

Pyramid Creek


  • maintain connectivity between pools
  • provide habitats for native fish and waterbugs
Gunbower Forest No
  • watering of the Gunbower Forest floodplain, floodrunners and wetlands.
  • inundate river red gums and other flood dependent vegetation
  • improve vegetation condition and habitat for frogs, turtles and waterbirds

Gunbower Creek


  • maintain breeding habitat and food resources for native fish such as Murray cod

Central Murray Wetlands


  • create habitat for native waterbirds, frogs and turtles
  • stimulate the germination of aquatic vegetation
Mid-Murray private wetlands No
  • provide habitat for southern bellfrogs and waterbirds
  • maintain wetland vegetation condition
Mid-Murray ephemeral creeks (Tuppal, Cockrans–Jimaringle, Murrain–Yarrien, Yarrien, Thule) No
  • provide habitat for southern bellfrogs and waterbirds
  • maintain fringing river redgum health
Lower Murray wetlands No
  • provide healthy wetland refuge habitat for a range of native plants and animals
Lower Lakes, Coorong and Murray Mouth No
  • maintain barrage releases to support fish movement through the barrage fishways
  • reduce salinity in the Coorong, supporting the Coorong food web including ruppia, estuarine fish and invertebratess

Sharing River Murray water

For more than 100 years, the states have been sharing the waters of the Murray. The Murray–Darling Basin Agreement sets out the rules negotiated and agreed by New South Wales, South Australia, Victoria and the Australian Government.

The Murray–Darling Basin Authority (MDBA) facilitates the sharing of River Murray water based on the agreed rules. The MDBA determines releases in the River Murray System to meet expected demands from the states. A range of scenarios are considered and these are used to guide operations for the year. As the year unfolds the scenarios and options are updated and operations amended accordingly.

Identifying how much water is available to the states takes into consideration stored water and seasonal weather conditions. Of the available water the MDBA determines conveyance water, critical human water needs and reserve for the next season before it shares water to the states. Each state has developed its own set of entitlement licences and rules around how to allocate their share of water. This means allocations, water orders and delivery of water all work in a different way from state to state.

Updated: 10 Jun 2022